"Christ, who is the truth about both God and man, gives foretastes of His incarnation in all more fragmentary truths."
-Fr. Alexander Schmemann
In short, yes. I have scraped the surface of this topic in this series:
Submitted by Krishan:
Asalamualaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu,
So according to the Orthodox Christian tradition, do Christian, Muslims, and Jews worship the same deity.
Obviously, Muslims and Jews don’t worship the Holy Trinity and don’t acknowledge the Divinity of the Christ.
However, although both Islam and modern Rabbinical Judaism deny the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, as opposed to the faith of Ancient Israel which espoused Orthodoxy, they both have origins in heretical offshoots from Orthodoxy and strive to worship the God of Abraham/Ibrahim/Avraham.
I do believe Christians, Muslims, and Jews worship the same God. That is not to say we all share the same faith or that we all worship the same God in spirit and in truth. Obviously all faiths outside of Orthodox Christianity view God through a broken lens, and while some lenses are clearer than others the only way to truly worship in Spirit and in Truth is to worship within the Church that is animated by the Spirit and founded on the Truth.
A soul that is nurtured by hatred toward man can not be at peace with God, Who has said: If you forgive not men their sins, neither shall your Father forgive your sins (Matt. 6:15). If a man does not want to be reconciled, you must at least guard yourself from hating, praying with a pure heart for him, and speaking no evil of him.— St. Maximus the Confessor
The history of the Filioque controversy is not exactly black and white. You are correct—to an extent!—that the Latin West prior to Photius taught the Filioque. But, aside from St. Augustine, the Fathers you listed did not teach the Filioque as understood by the West today (i.e. a hypostatic procession of the Spirit from the Son). As I stated in my previous answer, the language of double procession is not against Orthodox teaching—it is the nature of that procession that the East and West currently disagree on.
Also, the issue did come up before St. Photius—St. Maximus actually defends the Latins against the Greek East when they are criticized for saying that the Spirit proceeds from both Father and Son. Maximus’ defense of the West during his time (7th century) is actually the focal point of ecumenical dialogue between East and West today. Was Maximus defending the Filioque as it is understood by the West today? The Orthodox would argue that he is not and that, in fact, his defense of the Latin West is a defense of an eternal energetic procession of the Spirit through the Son—which is what the East teaches today!
My paper on St. Maximus and the Filioque should be up within the week if you’re interested! Also, I would strongly recommend Edward Siecienski’s and Aristeides Papadakis’ works on the Filioque controversy.